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Cross Communication Glossary
A widely accepted model describing the psychological process leading up to the consumer’s decision to purchase a product.
The AIDMA Model was first advocated by Roland Hall, an American economist, around 1920.
According to this model, there are five key processes: Attention, in which the consumer first notices the product or advertisement, followed by Interest, Desire, Memory, and Action.
This model has been used extensively in the advertising and marketing industries.
Other similar models exist, including “AIDA,” which omits the Memory stage.
A consumption behavior model that has been advocated by Dentsu since 2004.
It was developed to observe behaviors based on the understanding that the Internet has become prevalent, and that consumers now have access to environments in which they can obtain and transmit information themselves.
In this model, the key processes are: Attention, in which the consumer first notices the product or advertisement, followed by Interest. After this, the consumer Searches for information, and then makes a purchase (Action), after which information is Shared with others.
In comparison to “AIDMA,” the psychological process has become more compact, and the Action process has expanded.
Cluster analysis
A quantitative analysis method. Items with high levels of similarity are put into respective groups.
Similarities between individual items are expressed as indexes, which are then used to form categories. This method is useful as a marketing response to the fragmentation of markets, because the unique characteristics of each group are clearly defined. The groups are referred to as "clusters."
Contact Points
ContactPoints are the various points that can connect the consumer with the brand.
In general, Contact Points can include: product packages; advertisements, such as television commercials, newspapers advertisements, and ads displayed in trains and train stations; coverage in television programs, magazine articles, etc.; posters and product displays in shops; sales promotions, including shop displays and campaign goods; outdoor events (music, sports, etc.) held or sponsored by manufacturers; Internet-based communications on corporate Web sites and personal blogs, either via PC or mobile phone; and dialogs with friends and family.
Contact Point Management™
This is an original IMC planning method developed by us with a focus on Contact Points.
When there are a variety of possible Contact Points, this methodology allows you to identify the optimum combinations and timing, in order to create and manage efficient and effective plans.
Contact Point Management is unique in that it helps to select Contact Points that are ideally suited to the communication goals and message, and to define the best timing for contact based on time, place, circumstances, and feelings.
Core Idea
The Idea at the Heart of the Campaign. This is the concept that expresses the allure, novelty, and power of the campaign in simple terms. At the same time, it is the engine that moves the target.
When developing the Core Idea, we must take into consideration a variety of factors, including ‘target insights’ , ‘industry trends’ , ‘current activities in the market and particularly among competitors’ , and the ‘true nature of the brand's value’.
The form of the campaign changes dramatically depending on which of these factors are incorporated into the Core Idea; for example, the strategic directions, how the target is identified, use of Contact Points, and development of creative expressions.
Cross Communication
This term is sometimes used to mean “Combination of multiple media,” but we define Cross Communication as:
"Creation of a scenario to move the target."
More specifically, this means: “Effectively combining multiple Contact Points to form a communication scenario that takes into consideration both breadth (reach and frequency) and depth (increased involvement) based on target insights and media insights.”
This is a planning method with a focus on triggers that combine Contact Points in the context of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC).
The process of building good relationships so that consumers will turn their awareness to a media or brand; or, the state of such engagement (having interest, becoming a fan, stimulating a visit to a store or a purchase, etc.)
This term, as it refers to the concept described above, was originally used by The Advertising Research Foundation (ARF) as a new “media evaluation index” to take the place of existing terms such as “exposure”.
The approach was that in addition to the frequency and volume of contact with the media, it was also important to emphasize the types of relationships that had been established with the consumers; for example, degree of involvement, viewing attitudes, and viewing behaviors.
Now that the term has gained acceptance as a general marketing term, it has come to be used when explaining not only the relationship between people and the media, but also the relationship between people and brands.
Coming from the verb “facilitate”
It is a methodology to draw out team members´ opinions from a neutral standpoint to resolve an issue.
Specifically, Facilitation involves having large numbers of members gather in one place to discuss a given theme, with the help of a “Facilitator,” in order to discover and resolve issues, and to effectively form a consensus within the team.
This approach is effective in creating Core Ideas and Scenario Ideas for Cross Communication proposals.
Holistic Creative
Creative expressions with a view toward the scenario as a whole. Here, the term “holistic” is used to mean “comprehensive,” in the sense that the whole is not merely the sum of the parts, but rather that the parts are connected organically.
In Cross Communication, an appropriate creative is produced for each of the appropriate Contact Points. During this process, organically linked creative are developed based on the Scenario Idea. In this way, it is possible to create unique and calculated scenarios that lead to actions by the assumed targets.
Horizontal T Model
This is one of our original basic frameworks, used when creating scenarios for Cross Communication
It is used to visualize the two elements required in Cross Communication in a single structure, placing breadth (reaching as many targets as possible) on the vertical axis and depth (gradually increasing involvement) on the horizontal axis.
The name is derived from the image of a capital T on its side.
Integrated Marketing Communication
Continuous marketing activities that attempt to achieve synergy by integrating corporate communication activities that were traditionally undertaken by separate divisions, such as mass advertising, sales promotions, public relations (PR), direct marketing, events, trade shows, and interactive communications. The main goals of these activities are to strengthen long-term relationships between the brand and the customers, and to maximize the desired purchasing behavior.
Information Barrier
We use this term to express the difficulty that companies have in delivering information to the consumers.
As the volume of information in circulation increases exponentially - for example, due to the popularization of the Internet and mobile phones, and the evolution of digital technologies and the media - consumers have begun to isolate themselves even from information that they once found useful, because they feel it has nothing to do with them.
In effect, these consumers are putting up an “Information Barrier.”
Media Insights
An “insight,” based on observations, looks to the heart or the true nature of the matter in question. The term is used broadly in fields related to planning.
“media insight” in particular refers to gaining a grasp of the characteristics, functions, and roles of the media or contents that the consumer has come in contact with, and tying this into the creation of an idea or the solution to a given problem. In some cases, “media insight” refers to a deep knowledge or understanding of new media or technologies.
The term “consumer insights” is also used frequently in reference to more general insights.
Media Mix
Media mix means deciding on a combination of media or a distribution of budget to ensure that the message reaches the target efficiently (as broadly and economically as possible) to achieve the maximum effect.
The goal of media mix is to identify the target based on demographic characteristics such as gender, age, and occupation, and to maximize reach and frequency of contact. The basic concept is that if the message can be communicated to a larger number of consumers for the same cost, then the result will be greater recognition, and a higher degree of purchase intent.
Media Neutral
“media neutral” means selecting a media or vehicle based on a target analysis or market analysis and without preconceptions when developing a media plan. It can also refer to this planning stance.
In Cross Communication, it is particularly important to maintain a perspective of thinking based on Contact Points in accordance with the consumers’ behavior, without being restricted by a specified media.
Needs are the key motivators in people´s lives. The most common and well-known categorizations of needs include a list of needs compiled by the American psychologist H.A. Murray, and the five-step hierarchy of human needs proposed by Abraham Maslow. Recently, in the fields of marketing and advertising, these categorizations of needs have gained increasing attention as effective tools to be used when analyzing and studying a variety of psychological behaviors, including consumers´ interests, concerns, choices, and purchasing behaviors.
A concept used in the continuous improvement of work processes based on a four-step cycle: Plan-Do-Check-Act. The concept was originally used in industrial production management and quality management, but it is currently applied to work processes in general. In the fields of marketing and advertising, PDCA refers to the cycle of evaluation and improvement achieved through planning and implementation, followed by measurement of advertising effects.
Scenario Idea
The Framework that gives form to the Core Idea.
The “Scenario Idea” is a term coined by Dentsu in the context of Cross Communication. In addition to creating the Core Idea, in order to make this Idea a reality, it is also necessary to think about the overall campaign mechanisms to move the target.
The Scenario Idea is studied from three perspectives: Contact Points, Message, and Psychological Approach.
Sense of values
One´s individual approach to the types of values placed on something. These values act as the judgment standards when evaluating things. Values include aesthetic sense and ethical viewpoints.
Values are affected and formed by others´ ideas, a variety of experiences, and the environment in which one was raised.
These values are closely tied into motivations. People have many different motivations, but when there is a cluster of similar or related motivations that are considerably stronger than other motivations, and when fulfilling those motivations holds great meaning in a person´s life, then these motivations may take the form of values.
Structure design
This refers to demonstrative, quantitative design of the plan. It embodies our original approach to Cross Communication.
In some respects, highly refined Cross Communication is similar to a 'construction project' .
The idea is to develop a campaign that could be compared to a first-rate building, not only with an outstanding design but with an outstanding structure as well, by providing a foundation for the Scenario Idea in terms of its scale and degree of effects.
Vehicles refer to specific named media in each media type (e.g., newspapers, magazines, radio, television).
For example, in the case of newspapers, newspaper A and newspaper B would be separate vehicles; in the case of television, vehicles might refer to news program C and variety show D.
As an advertising term, this refers to a consumer transmitting some type of information about a product or service to another consumer either verbally or over the Internet.
WOM can spread naturally, or it can be generated intentionally, for example by creating a mechanism that facilitates WOM. The latter case is referred to as WOM Marketing.
© 2012 The Dentsu Cross Switch Team
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© 2012 The Dentsu Cross Switch Team